Compound Molecule Water

In an other proteomic study, the CSF proteins were analysed in a group of FTD patients, which is the second most common type of dementia.The levels of six proteins and their isoforms were altered in FTD patients compared to controls including graninelike neuroendocrine precursor, pigment epithelium derived factor, RBP, apoE, and haptoglobin. We showed for the rst time that several proteins involved in FTD pathology were not altered in the CSF of AD patients, and vice versa, thus establishing differences in pathophysiological mechanisms between FTD and AD, two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, the combination of DE and PCA has been used for studying biomarkers in ADCSF compared to controls. They detected a panel of nine biomarkers, which was used to distinguish normals from ADCSF.Thus far they have not identied any of the proteins.We have also examined the ability of the DE technology to classify CSF samples into appropriate categories using multivariate statistical methods.This recent study demonstrated the potential utility of the proteomic approach to classify AD CSF as a distinct group from Olodaterol normal CSF and other types of dementias, using a panel of protein markers, dened by the use of multivariate statistical methods. Our previous direct DE study of the ADFTD proteome showed that sixseven proteins respectively were signicantly altered compared to controls.Some of the altered proteins were consistent between these two studies for example a reduced level of RBP in FTD.In contrast, CSF Epiandrosterone analysis of AD showed increased levels of one isoform of RBP, indicating a different role of RBP in the pathology of AD and FTD.Interestingly, several of the proteins found increased in the FTD study, including TTR, m and apoA, has the potential to form amyloid brils. To our knowledge, the TTR levels of FTD has not previously been studied, but in AD the CSF levels were shown to be decreased in an immunological study, not differentiating between TTR isoforms also showed an increased level of TTR, but that was the more acidic, low abundant isoform, compared to this study.This highlights again the importance and the capacity of DE to quantitative different isoforms, because different isoforms may have different roles in the pathology of neurodegeneration.However, direct and prefractionated DE are two different proteomic approaches and a somewhat different analytical window is expected.Direct and prefractionated D gels show different protein patterns, for example, the apoE and apoJ isoforms seems to be missing in the prefractionated D gels, which may be explained by the fact that lipoproteins tend to adhere to plastics and could be lost during LPIEF or additional sample transfer steps in the prefractionation procedure.Further studies of these protein changes have to be validated on a larger patient material and referable also with complementary methods in order to assess any of the proteins potential as biomarkers for ADFTD.. SELDI analysis CSF proteins have also been analysed by the SELDI technique, instead of the DE methodology in nine AD patients compared to ten healthy controls. Using this approach, signi cant quantitative differences were detected including four over expressed and one under expressed polypeptides in AD patients compared to controls.

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